汉语水平考试 - HSK
HSK is a Chinese language profeciency test which is measured by an international standardized exam.
It can be said to be the Chinese equivalent of the English language profeciency exams, such as the American TOEFL and British IELTS.
There are six levels of written exams and three levels of oral exams.
Here you can find the vocabulary one is required to know in order to succeed in the written exam.